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Tuesday, 30 May 2017

Mobile Networks

Network

Telecommunications के अंदर नेटवर्क एक टर्मिनल नोड्स संग्रह है यह लिंक telecommunication और टर्मिनलों के बीच दूरसंचार सक्षम करने के लिंक जुड़े हुए हैं नोड्स का उपयोग  सर्किट स्विचिंग, संदेश स्विचिंग या पैकेट स्विचिं  सही लिंक के माध्यम से संकेत पारित करने के लिए किया जाता है

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A cellular network or mobile network is a communication network where the last link is wireless. The network is distributed over land areas called cells, each served by at least one fixed-location transceiver, but more normally three cell sites or base stations. These base stations provide the cell with the network coverage which can be used for transmission of voice, data and others. A cell typically uses a different set of frequencies from neighboring cells, to avoid interference and provide guaranteed service quality within each cell.

When joined together these cells provide radio coverage over a wide geographic area. This enables a large number of portable transceivers (e.g., mobile phones, pagers, etc.) to communicate with each other and with fixed transceivers and telephones anywhere in the network, via base stations, even if some of the transceivers are moving through more than one cell during transmission.
Cellular networks offer a number of desirable features:
  • More capacity than a single large transmitter, since the same frequency can be used for multiple links as long as they are in different cells
  • Mobile devices use less power than with a single transmitter or satellite since the cell towers are closer
  • Larger coverage area than a single terrestrial transmitter, since additional cell towers can be added indefinitely and are not limited by the horizon
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Type of Networks 
1G (Generation) 
2G
3G
4G 




1G  TECHNOLOGY

1G  refers to the first generation of wireless telephone technology, mobile telecommunications which was first introduced in 1980s and completed in early 1990s.
  •   It's Speed was upto 2.4kbps.

  •   It allows the voice calls in 1 country.

  •  1G network use  Analog Signal.

  •   AMPS  (Advanced Mobile Phone System was

  •   First launched in USA in 1G mobile

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DRAWBACKS OF 1G

  • Poor Voice Quality
  •  Poor Battery Life
  •  Large Phone Size
  •  No Security
  •  Limited Capacity
  •  Poor Handoff Reliability 


2G  TECHNOLOGY

2G  (GSM,CDMA) , पहेले 1992 में आया था 2G नेटवर्क, सेलुलर टेलीफोन टेक्नोलॉजी का सेकंड जनरेशन था तथा पहला डिजिटल एन्क्रिप्शन का कन्वर्सेशन यूज़ करना वाला नेटवर्क बना 

2G नेटवर्क पहला नेटवर्क था जिसने पहली बार डाटा सर्विस और SMS टेक्स्ट messaging जैसी ऑफर लाये , but their data transfer rates are lower than those of their successors.

2.5G networks (GPRS, CDMA2000 1x) 2G मॉडिफाई वर्शन है ,with theoretical data rates up to about 144kbit/s. GPRS offered the first always-on data service
  •  2G technology  refers to the 2nd generation  which is  based on GSM.

  •  It was launched in Finland in the year 1991.

  • 2G network use digital signals.

  • It’s  data speed was upto 64kbps.

Features Includes:
  •  It enables services such as text  messages,
  •     picture messages and MMS (multi media message).
  •   It provides better quality and capacity .

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DRAWBACKS OF 2G

  •  2G requires strong digital signal to help mobile phones work. If there is no network coverage in any specific area , digital signals would  weak.

  • These systems are unable to handle complex  data  such as Videos.



3G  TECHNOLOGY

3G  ( UMTS TDD / TD WCDMA ) , networks succeed 2G ones,फास्टर डाटा ऑफर करने वाले तथा पहेले नेटवर्क जिसने विडियो कालिंग इनेबल किया.

This makes them especially suitable for use in modern smartphones, which require constant high-speed internet connection for many of their applications

Note-  basics of UMTS TDD, the time division duplex cellular technology sometimes called TD WCDMA, part of the UMTS 3G system.
  •  3G  technology  refer to third generation which was introduced in  year  2000s.

  •  Data Transmission speed increased from 144kbps- 2Mbps.

  •  Typically called Smart Phones and features increased its bandwidth and data transfer rates to accommodate

  • web-based applications and audio and video files.

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Feature OF 3G


  • Providing Faster Communication

  • Send/Receive Large Email Messages

  • High Speed Web / More Security

  • Video Conferencing / 3D Gaming

  • TV Streaming/ Mobile TV/ Phone Calls

  •  Large Capacities and Broadband Capabilities

  • 11 sec – 1.5 min. time to download a 3 min Mp3 song.

     

     

Drawback OF 3G

  •  Expensive fees for 3G Licenses Services

  •  It was challenge to build the infrastructure for 3G

  • High Bandwidth Requirement

  • Expensive  3G Phones.

  • Large Cell Phones



4G TECHNOLOGY (Anytime ,Anywhere)

4G ( LTE) , मोबाइल फ़ोन कम्युनिकेशन की यह चोथी जनरेशन है  It is a successor of the 3G and provides ultra-broadband internet access for mobile devices. The high data transfer rates make 4G networks suitable for use in USB wireless modems for laptops and even home internet access
  • 4G  technology refer  to or short name of fourth Generation  which was started from late 2000s.

  • Capable of providing 100Mbps – 1Gbps speed.

  • One of the basic term used to describe 4G is MAGIC.

  • Mobile Multimedia Anytime Anywhere

  • Global Mobility Support

  • Integrated Wireless Solution

  • Customized Personal Services

  • Also known as Mobile Broadband Everywhere.

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Feature OF 4G

  • The next generations of wireless technology that promises  higher data rates and expanded multimedia services.

  •  Capable to provide speed 100Mbps-1Gbps.

  •  High QOS and High Security

  •  Provide any kind of service at any time as per user requirements, anywhere.

Features Include:
  • More Security
  • High Speed
  • High Capacity
  • Low Cost Per-bit etc.

Drawback OF 4G

  •   Battery uses is more Hard to implement
  •   Need complicated hardware
  •   Expensive equipment  required to implement next generation network.

Except for the Scandinavian Countries (Northern Europe that includes Denmark and two of the nations of Scandinavian , Norway and Sweden. ), a few  countries have started the  4G commercially.


In the US, Sprint Nextel  and Others Germany , Spain, China , Japan and England   are also using the 4G services and mobiles .



The basic difference between 3G and 4G is in data transfer and signal quality.

 Technology3G  4G
Data Transfer Rate3.1 MB/sec   100 MB/sec
Internet ServicesBroadbandUltra Broadband
Mobile  - TV Resolution LowHigh
Bandwidth 5-20 MHz100MHz
Frequency1.6-2 GHz2-8 GHz
Download and upload5.8 Mbps 14 Mbps




5G TECHNOLOGY


  •   5G  technology  refer to short name of  fifth Generation  which was started from late 2010s.

  •  Complete wireless communication with almost no limitations.

  •  It is highly supportable to WWWW (Wireless World Wide Web).



BENEFITS OF 5G TECHNOLOGY


  •   High Speed, High Capacity 5G technology providing  large broadcasting of data in Gbps .

  •  Multi - Media Newspapers, watch T.V programs with the clarity as to that of an HD Quality.

  •  Faster data transmission that of  the previous generations.

  •  Large Phone Memory, Dialing Speed, clarity in Audio/Video.

  •  Support interactive multimedia , voice, streaming video, Internet  and other  5G is  More Effective and More Attractive.

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